The following bibliography is an extensive, but not comprehensive, list of sources used in researching and compiling information on South Carolina’s school equalization program:
Avery Research Center, Charleston, SC
Albertha Johnston Murray Papers
Charleston County Black School Directory Collection
J. Arthur Brown Papers
Office of Archives and Records, Charleston County School District, Charleston, SC
Board Minutes, City Board of School Commissioners, School District 20
District 2 Board Minute Books
South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, SC
Department of Education, School Building Construction and Renovation, Project Files
Governor James F. Byrnes Papers
Governor George Bell Timmerman, Jr. Papers
Governor Ernest F. Hollings Papers
National Register of Historic Places Files
South Carolina Statewide Survey Files
South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC
J.A. DeLaine Papers
Special Collections, Clemson University Libraries, Clemson, SC
James Byrnes Collection
Leland Engineering Firm Collection
Thomas Cooper Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC
Microfilmed Papers of the NAACP
New York Times, 18 February 1951.
News and Courier (Charleston, SC), 1948-1955.
The State (Columbia, SC), 27 January 1955.
1950 United States Census of Population, General Characteristics, South Carolina. Washington, DC:U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, United States
Government Printing Office, 1952.
Annual Reports of the State Superintendent of Education of the State of South Carolina, Reports and Resolutions of South Carolina to the General Assembly of the
State of South Carolina. Columbia: State Budget and Control Board, 1945-1959.
Report of Committee Appointed to Study Ways and Means to Provide for Public School Education Needs, Journal of the House of Representatives of the First Session
of the 89th General Assembly of the State of South Carolina, being the Regular Session Beginning Tuesday, January 9, 1951. Columbia: State Budget and
Control Board, 1951.
“South Carolina’s Educational Revolution: A Report of Progress in South Carolina. ”Columbia: The State Educational Finance Commission, c. 1954.
Educational Planning Publications
Brubaker, C. William. Planning and Designing Schools. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
Campbell, Edward A. “New Spaces and Places for Learning.” The School Review 68, no. 3 (Autumn 1960): 346-352.
Caudill, William W. Toward Better School Design .New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1954.
Cutler, William W. “Cathedral of Culture: The Schoolhouse in American Educational Thought and Practice Since 1820.” History of Education Quarterly 29, no. 1
(Spring 1989): 1-40.
Engelhardt, N.L., N.L. Engelhardt, Jr., and Stanton Leggett. Planning Elementary School Buildings. New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1953.
-----. Planning Secondary School Buildings. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1949.
-----. School Planning and Building Handbook. New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1956.
Engelhardt, Jr., N.L. “Trends in School Architecture and Design.” Review of Educational Research 12, no. 2, School Plant and Equipment (April 1942):” 171-177.
Guide for Planning School Plants, 1958 Edition. Washington, DC: National Council on Schoolhouse Construction, 1958.
Johnson, Charles S. “Next Steps in Education in the South.” Phylon (1940-1956) 15, no. 1 (First Quarter 1954): 7-20.
Marsh, Reginald E. “Trends in Materials and Design.” Review of Educational Research 15, no. 1, School Plant and Equipment (February 1945): 54-60.
McClurkin, W.D. School Building Planning. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1964.
McQuade, Walter, ed. Schoolhouse. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1958.
National Council of Chief State School Officers. Planning Rural Community School Buildings. New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia
Ogata, Amy F. "Building for Learning in Postwar American Elementary Schools." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 67, no. 4 (December 2008): 562-592.
Pawley, Eric, ed. AIA School Plant Studies, A Selection: 1952-1962. New York: American Institute of Architects, 1962.
Public Schools of Charleston, South Carolina: A Survey Report. Nashville, TN: Division of Surveys and Field Services, George Peabody College for Teachers, 1949.
Public Schools of South Carolina: A Report of the South Carolina Education Survey Committee. Nashville, TN: Division of Surveys and Field Services, George
Peabody College for Teachers, 1948.
Reavis, William C. “Functional Planning of School-Building Programs.” The Elementary School Journal 46, no. 2 (October 1945): 72-80.
Reid, Kenneth, ed. School Planning: The Architectural Record of a Decade. New York: F.W. Dodge Corporation, 1951.
Strevall, Wallace H. and Arvid J. Burke. Administration of the School Building Program. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959.
Books, Articles, and Theses
Baker, R. Scott. “Ambiguous Legacies: The NAACP’s Legal Campaign Against Segregation in Charleston, South Carolina, 1935-1975.” Ph.D. diss., Columbia
-----. Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926-1972. Columbia: The University of South
Carolina Press, 2006.
Baughn, Jennifer V. Opager. “Education, Segregation, and Modernization: Mississippi’s School Equalization Building Program, 1946-1961.” Arris 16 (2005): 37-55.
Bolton, Charles C. “Mississippi’s School Equalization Program, 1945-1954: ‘A Last Gasp to Try to Maintain a Segregated Educational System.’” The Journal of
Southern History 66, no. 4 (November 2000): 781-814.
-----. The Hardest Deal of All: The Battle over School Integration in Mississippi, 1870-1980. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.
Brown, Millicent. “Civil Rights Activism in Charleston, South Carolina, 1940-1970.” Ph.D. diss., Florida State University, 1997.
Byrnes, James F. All in One Lifetime. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Clark, Septima Poinsette. Echo in My Soul. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1962.
Clyburn, James with Jennifer Revels. Uncommon Courage: The Story of Briggs v. Elliott, South Carolina’s Unsung Civil Rights Battle. Spartanburg, SC: Palmetto
Conservation Foundation/PCF Press, 2004.
DeLaine, J.A., Jr. Briggs v. Elliott: Clarendon County’s Quest for Equality. Pine Brook, NJ: O. Gona Press, 2003.
Dobrasko, Rebekah. "Equalization Schools." African Americans in South Carolina: History, Politics, and Culture. Aiken: University of South Carolina Aiken, 2011.
Website address: http://polisci.usca.edu/aasc/Equalization%20Schools.htm.
Dobrasko, Rebekah. “Upholding ‘Separate but Equal:’ South Carolina’s School Equalization Program, 1951-1955.” MA thesis, University of South Carolina, 2005.
Dubose, Sonny. The Road to Brown: The Leadership of a Soldier of the Cross Reverend J.A. DeLaine. Orangeburg, SC: Williams Publishing, 2002.
Edmonds, Michael. “Dennis High School, Lee County.” Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, listed 26 January 2005.
Gona, Ophelia De Laine. Dawn of Desegregation: J.A. De Laine and Briggs v. Elliott. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2011.
Green, William and Heather Jones. “Mitigation of Adverse Effects to the Bucksport Elementary School, Bucksport Workforce Center Project, Horry County, South
Carolina.” Report submitted by S&ME, Inc. to Horry County, August 2007.
Hornsby, Benjamin F. Stepping Stone to the Supreme Court: Clarendon County, South Carolina. Columbia: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1992.
Kirk, Francis Marion. South Carolina Education, 1710-1965. Columbia: South Carolina Department of Education, 1966.
Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America’s Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage Books, 2004.
Montgomery, Warner M. Columbia Schools: A History of Richland County School District One, Columbia, South Carolina, 1972-2000. Columbia, SC: Warner M.
Moore, Burchill Richardson. “A History of the Negro Public Schools of Charleston, South Carolina, 1867-1942.” M.A. thesis, University of South Carolina, 1942.
Moore, Robert, Edith Childs, and Wilhelmenia Robinson. Brewer High School: More Than a School. Donalds, SC: Voice of Truth, LLC, 2006.
Moore, Winfred B. and Orville Burton, eds. Toward the Meeting of the Waters: Currents in the Civil Rights Movement of South Carolina during the Twentieth Century.
Columbia: The University of South Carolina Press, 2008.
Murray, Pauli, ed. States’ Laws on Race and Color. Studies in the Legal History of the South, eds. Paul Finkelman and Kermit L. Hall. Athens: University of Georgia
New South Associates. "Charleston County Historic Resources Survey Update." Charleston: Charleston County, 2016.
O’Brien, Thomas Victor. “Georgia’s Response to Brown v. Board of Education: The Rise and Fall of Massive Resistance, 1949-1961.” Ph.D. diss., Emory University,
-----. The Politics of Race and Schooling: Public Education in Georgia, 1900-1961. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 1999.
Pickens County Schools Historical Committee. A History: The Schools of Pickens County. Pickens, SC: Pickens County School District, c. 1995.
Pinder, Kamina and Evan Hanson. "360 Degrees of Segregation: A Historical Perspective of Segregation-Era School Equalization Programs in the Southern United
States." Amsterdam Law Forum vol. 2, no. 3 (2010): 49-69.
Quint, Howard. Profile in Black and White: A Frank Portrait of South Carolina. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1958.
Richardson, Katherine. “African-American Primary and Secondary Public School Buildings in South Carolina, ca. 1895-1954,” Multiple Property Submission to the
National Register of Historic Places, listed 15 April 1996.
Robertson, David. Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1994.
Smyth, William D. “Segregation in Charleston in the 1950s: A Decade of Transition.” South Carolina Historical Magazine 92, no. 2 (April 1991): 99-123.
Sullivan, Patricia. Days of Hope: Race and Democracy in the New Deal Era. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Tushnet, Mark. The NAACP’s Legal Strategy Against Segregated Education, 1925-1950. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1987.
Weyeneth, Robert R. “The Architecture of Racial Segregation: The Challenges of Preserving the Problematic Past.” The Public Historian 27, no. 4 (Fall 2005): 11-44
White, John. "Managed Compliance: White Resistance and Desegregation in South Carolina, 1950-1970." PhD diss., University of Florida, 2006.
Willingham, Debbie, ed. The Stories of Our Schools: The School District of Greenville County. Greenville, SC: Greenville County School District, 2000.